How to wire a one-way light switch. Although this wiring job can initially seem to be a daunting task, after reading these few simple steps, you will see how easy it really can be to do yourself. The other end of this cable is taken to the position of the new light. Steps to Wire Recessed Lights The easiest way to do this is wire a 1.5mm twin and earth directly to a switch from your consumer unit. Cut a length of 14/2 nonmetallic cable (NM) that measures 12 inches longer than your measurement. One a toggle switch, the other a dimmer. ; Prepare the cable route for the spur from the junction box to the new lighting point, using 1mm 2 two-core-and-earth spur cable. may be better as you won't have all the wires in the one place (although that may be what you want). If you are installing a chandelier or ceiling fan, they can be heavy, so you will need to ensure that the junction boxes for the light fixtures are strong. To add a second light which is switched with the first one, the switched line, neutral and earth need to be extended to the second light. Note: At the GFCI, you'd probably want to pigtail the wires together as opposed to feeding through the GFCI which would put the switch/lights on the load side. Another NM cable connects the first outlet box to the next box(es) and so on until you reach the end of the chain. Dan, just a minor point. 1. Strip the ends of the wire. This means that the AC voltage on the hot wire can still slightly power the leds and/or the capacitors in the light bulb, leading to a few milli or micro amps of current to flow through ultra efficient leds, lighting them up. Step 4: Choose your light color temperature. Click the icons below to get our NEC ® compliant Electrical Calc Elite or Electric Toolkit, available for Android and iOS. Fluorescent lights are ideal for plants with low to medium light requirements, like African violets. The white wire is marked black on both ends to identify it as hot. You can put these fixtures on dimmers so you can lower the lights and create the perfect ambience for family movie night. The taped white wire of cable C3 is the hot to the light LT2 (where the red wire of cable C2 is used to splice the hot to the next light, LT1). This is the simplest situation, and also the most common. The pathway lights are durable and weather resistant, so they can be used in multiple seasons instead of just warm summer nights. The Electrical Calc Elite is designed to solve many of your common code-based electrical calculations like wire sizes, voltage drop, conduit sizing, etc. The cord is a nice big 3-conductor with a grounded end that should hold up … To run the wire from the circuit that already exists, you will need to splice the wires together. Apply a wire nut to this connection. Repair a Light Fixture Installed without... Repair a Light Fixture Installed without an Electrical Box. Your junction boxes must remain accessible or be of the Maintenance Free type. Running 3-way wire would mean cutting up the ceiling as the lights are around a corner in a loft area (no access). One cable connects to the previous light, the other continues to the next light. Using each of these extra wires, known as pigtails, match each color wire to the wire of the same color in the light fixtures. Pinch the end of the wire. one at the begining of the run and one at the end. home improvement and repair website. If you are installing this set of switches off of an existing circuit in your home, before you begin, ensure that there are no more than 15 items, or loads, on the circuit. Repeat this step for each fluorescent light you will wire in this series. Everything was workin... Master light switch for multiple breakers. A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Scene 3 All lights are OFF for maximum viewing conditions of a movie. The other terminal is marked as L1 and is the output to the light fixture. Secure the light fixture to the junction box for the light, following the instructions from the manufacturer. How to wire light switches. A good place for adding a down-light would be an area or room where there are existing fixtures and switches, but you want to … Secure the light fixture to the junction box for the light, following the instructions from the manufacturer. One wire connects to COM, and the other wire to L1. Secure a screw nut to the ends of each one. View our Privacy Policy here. On the last fixture, lead the outgoing wire down the wall to the junction box for the light switches, allowing an additional 8 inches of wire. Wiring a down-light into an existing lighting circuit is a great way to add illumination to an area without having to add a switch. Secure a screw nut to the ends of each one. Connect the black wire from the first two way switch to the L1 terminal, and connect the grey wire to the L2 terminal. I have black to bl... 3 way (SPDT) Switch to alternate light sources? We always suggest you to use constant-current strips (or) 24-volt strips for long run applications, rather than 12-volt strips, which lose voltage quickly. A one way light switch has two terminals which is a common marked as COM or C. The common is for the live wire that supplies the input voltage to the switch. Valence Style: Shine light both on the ceiling and down the wall with this valance-style cove. Tighten the wire nut. DoItYourself.com®, founded in 1995, is the leading independent There is no connection to Loop. LEDs use between 60W and 80W per 4-lamp, 4-foot fixture vs 128W to 172W, but they can do even better than that: our high-efficiency, Ultra High Lumen lights can act as 1-for-2 replacements, allowing you to light a 4-lamp fluorescent fixture with just 2 LED tubes, or a total of 40W vs 128W. Then, turn the circuit breaker back to the ON position. The red wire between the lights is connected directly to the hot on L1 and then run to the next light. The first and second Lamps are glowing, because both the separate switches S 1 and S 2 which are connect to the bulbs through Line are at ON position and so the circuit is completed. Each light or outlet counts as 1 item, or 1 load. If you are using standard T & E there will be one brown core and one blue so you will not need to sleeve a blue with brown sleeving. Copyright© This is so that the full 120 volts is presented to each device. Using your needle-nose pliers, bend the wire back onto the clip and pinch it down tightly so there’s no interference with the dimmer switch. Lights and light switches are among the most common wiring elements in a home. A hot wire (red or black) comes out of the wall and into one switch, then out of that switch and into the other one. A recessed light, sometimes called a can light, has both its housing and bulb recessed above the ceiling drywall. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting, photography, videography, publishing, manufacturing, astrophysics, horticulture, and other fields. Hold multiple light strings and extension cords in one clip Fluorescent Bulbs are one of the largest commodities inside of commercial properties that need to be recycled. 2. I have 5 cealing can lights that I want to wire with 2, 3way switches. This is completely acceptable, although more care is required to ensure both of the wires are securely held by the terminal screw. Connect the Line (brown) wire to the SWL terminal, together with the lamps Line wire, and connect the Neutral (blue) wire to the N terminal. clear pine. Use insulated 16- or 18-gauge wiring, colored red, for the ground wires. The second power wire must be long enough to reach from what you're powering (like a light) to the "power" connection on the switch. On one end is the plug for the quite-beefy cord or input from an adjacent light if you have more than one. Since they don’t hang into the room, they shouldn’t create unwanted glare on the TV screen. Pendant lights traditionally include only one lightbulb, so they don’t cover as much ground; several are often used to cover more space. On the last fixture, lead the outgoing wire down the wall to the junction box for the light switches, allowing an additional 8 … The pictures below shows components of my entire table top “system” of new-work, recessed lights, starting at the circuit breaker on the left, and going all the way back to the last recessed can on the right. n. 1. You may want to control two lights with one switch in certain locations around your home, such as the front entrance or a double-bay garage. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons.The color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photons) is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor. One way switching - Plastic switches. I just removed two bathroom vanity lights to replace them and discovered that there was no junction box behind either. Strip of 3/8-inch of insulation from the ends. LED light bulbs are up to 80 percent more efficient than traditional lighting. The stock wires that come with the strip light are about 2' long. From another terminal of the switch, the wire is carried up to tube light set up and connected to port 1 of the electronic ballast. You might want to be able to light up the entrance both inside and out and also control a living room or kitchen light. Most symbols used on a wiring diagram look like abstract versions of the real objects they represent. Then a cable out to the light, I'm assuming you know how to wire it, if not ask. A 9-volt battery is distinct from most other batteries. Here the ceiling rose is shown with two cables, both of which connect to line, neutral and earth with no loop connection. Wrap the bare copper wire … A piece of brown sleeving is used on the blue wire, as both wires are live. Then separate the red, black, white and ground wires on each one. You may freely link Relating to or being a system of simultaneous communication of two or more messages on the same wire or radio channel. Need a little help figuring out a circuit. If you reach a switch that causes the circuit breaker to trip again, you have identified the section of circuit wiring where a loose connection or wiring problem exists. The neutral from the source is connected directly to the neutral terminal on the light and the source hot is spliced with the white loop wire. In your joint box diagram you have shown 2 blue wires to the lights, one sleeved brown. Also, measure the distance between the junction box and the closest recessed light. Using your wire strippers, strip ¾ of an inch off of each wire so that the copper is exposed. This concept can be used with ceiling roses as shown here, but the same principles apply to other light fittings including downlights. Number of Products: 8; Dusk to Dawn: Yes Turn off all light and appliance switches along the circuit. HID light bulbs emit a large amount of light and are commonly found in parking lots, streets, and warehouse lighting. Ceiling Lights with Reflectors Also known as turret lights, these fixtures have uplight or downlight reflectors to direct light. Adding an extra cable to the existing ceiling rose To add a second light which is switched with the first one, the switched line, neutral and earth need to be extended to the second light. It may, in some cases, even return to the wall from the second switch. Repeat this process for each light fixture. When adding a new light fixture to a home, a homeowner might like to know how wiring a light switch with multiple lights can be done. Multiple Light Switch Wiring With conventional light switch wiring using NM cable , a NM cable supplies line voltage from the electrical panel to a light switch outlet box. There are many variations and different ways that it can be wired, but the most common (and most basic) variation has the power supply to the switch box and a switched line from there to the light. Website operating In technical usage, a replaceable component that produces light from electricity is called a lamp. Is the easiest way as follows. Use your wire cutters to cut off the ends of the wire. The narrower the bulb, the more efficient and brighter it is, due to the smaller surface area. I switched out my kitchen ceiling lights for led lights. I am used to wiring multiple lights from a single switch in series like thi... 3-way switch, multiple lights, power at light. Two-way switches enable a circuit containing one or more lights to be turned on or off from two different locations. Fit traditional fluorescent ceiling strip lights with these LED lights, which use energy more efficiently, last longer, and produce less heat. Install the T-shape base to … Cut 6-inch lengths of extra wire to use for completing the circuit for each one of the outlets. The reason you must install the junction boxes is that they will safely hold the wires. Then from the first light just continue through with your live, neutral, cpc into the second and then third light fitting. suggestions. Tags: 2 lights , 3 way light switch , 3 way switch , how to wire a light switch , power feed via light , three way light switch , Three way switch , travelers , two lights Step 14 Connect the black wire from the power circuit breaker to the bottom screw on the light switch. Not all lights are created equal. Each light can provide up to 6 hours of cool white light, making them a practical and stylish solution for any garden, walkway, path, patio, driveway, landscape, and more! The sharp edges of the valance have been softened with a router fitted with a 1/8-in. It will also be necessary to do this for the neutral in situations where there are already 3 or more cables connected. The wiring will be such that the layout will be power ---> lights ---> switch. How to add one or more additional lights, so that all are operated from the same switch. The filament is enclosed in a glass bulb to protect the filament from oxidation.Current is supplied to the filament by terminals or wires embedded in the glass. I was installing a new fan control switch and dimmer. plex (mŭl′tə-plĕks′) adj. The first power wire must be long enough to reach from the power source (usually a battery) to the "acc" connection on the switch. ; Unscrew the junction box cover. At first I thought I could use old work pancake boxes, but the problem is that in both cases, the in-wall wiring … The connecting five (5) lights with 14-3 … Relating to, having, or consisting of multiple elements or parts: "the whole complex and multiplex detail of the noble science of dinner" (Thomas Love Peacock). I'm looking at lighting a kitchen in a wood cabin and to try and make the wiring (which will sit on the outside of the ceiling) as neat as possible, I'm wondering if I can wire 3 separate lights in the fashion I've illustrated below (taking an illustration that was done for 2 lights and trying to add a third, but not in a daisy chain fashion). Make movie night more exciting with a strip of TV LED lights that go around the exterior of your TV screen and create colorful patterns that frame your movie or game. Installing a Ceiling Fan: How to Hang from Plaster, Wiring a Light Switch in the Middle of a Ciruit, How to Test a High-pressure Sodium Ballast. Click here or on the image below for the full, undivided image of the table top. After looking at the information on how to install and watching you tube videos for half an hour I called a friend who had installed them. In the case of several lights controlled by a single switch, the converted white conductor from the line side of the switch goes to one fixture, and then another cable goes from there to the second fixture, to the third, etc. 4FT LED Wraparound Light 40W 4 Foot LED Shop Lights for Garage, [2-lamp 32W Fluorescent Equiv.] To ensure our content is always up-to-date with current information, best practices, and professional advice, articles are routinely reviewed by industry experts with years of hands-on experience. Am wiring multiple recessed lights in between two 3 way switches. The light bulb is on a circuit with a switched neutral wire, instead of a switched hot wire. Thus, results in glowing LED lights with one end of strip light brighter than other one. Two way switch lighting circuit diagrams. Wiring a One Way Switch. Finishing a Basement 7 - Electrical and ... Finishing a Basement 7 - Electrical and Lighting Considerations. Step 4: Now it is time to wire up the intermediate switch. round-over bit. As with the other lighting diagrams in this section, the first ceiling rose could be a junction box instead, or could be connected via the 'loop at switch' method. Connect the wires. The new cable here is labelled 'light 2'. An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows. In a line (from first light to second then third etc.) Aug 7, 2013 - How to wire a 2 way switch, How to Change or Replace a Basic On/Off 2-Way Switch With 2 lights, it is spliced with the white wire running to the switches. Then, take a pair of wire cutters and cut the Romex wire to lengths that are about 4 to 6 inches longer than your measurements. I'm about to hang 5 fluorescent fixtures in my workshop. The best way would also involve knowing the actual physical location of the various components so that the minimal length of wire is used. Based on the type of bulb, lights can appear “cooler” or “warmer” on camera. Reply. Tighten the wire nut. I clipped one wire to be about 6" long, and used the trimmed wire to extent the other wire to about 3.5" long. This official sponsor may provide discounts for members. Step 3 Use a dual NM cable stripper/cutter to strip six inches of plastic sheath from the NM cable. LED Light Bulbs. The lights I have currently are 20 years old with 2 ballasts. The live wire is connected to one terminal of the switch. Let, the color of wires from port 3 and port 4 are black, and from port 5 and port 6 are red or any other color. All household electrical circuits are wired in parallel with each other; there's nothing special about fluorescent lights. 1 – for each hot and neutral wire entering the box 1 – for all the ground wires combined 1 – for all the cable clamps combined (if any) 2 – for each device (switch or outlet-but not light fixtures) Multiply the total by 2 for 14-gauge wire and 2.25 for 12-gauge wire to get the minimum box size required in … Questions of a Do It Yourself nature should be Tuck the wires into the junction box and then slide the switch into place inside. In this model of fluorescent strip light there is an additional connection point for connecting lights in series. 4400lm 4000K LED Wrap Light, Flushmount Office Ceiling Light … One light was mounted over a stud and the other was right next the a stud. I have two recessed lights with the power going to the light furtherest from the switch. Pendant Lights: A pendant light is a smaller fixture suspended from the ceiling by a cord, chain or metal rod. Standard Wiring Diagram Symbols. Having multiple lights set up at the same switch can be beneficial. This feels like a dumb question and I should be able to logic my way to an ... No power to switch and multiple lights not working. With thousands of different light bulb base types, shapes, styles and colors OogaLights brings you a very simple way to pick the right light … Do this for each light fixture. This part is no different from the case where the power enters the switch box first. How to control each lamp separately by single way switches in parallel lighting circuits. Converting a standard ceiling light fixture to a recessed light involves removing the old fixture and its electrical box and installing the new recessed light, usually in the same place. It doesn't matter how you wire the lights as long as they are all connected to 2 and 4. Got to wire up 6 fluorescent lights over the next few days to 1 switch. Light Bulbs. Insert the bare end of the white conductor into a wire nut with the loose white conductor in the new fixture. An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.It is the most common form of artificial lighting and is essential to modern society, providing interior lighting for buildings and exterior light for evening and nighttime activities. Cut off the power supply to the relevant circuit from the consumer unit. submitted to our "DoItYourself.com Community Forums". All rights reserved. Do this for each light fixture. If there are more than 2 lights, the red is pigtailed to the fixture hot and to the red wire running on to the next light. It’s not much larger than a regular AA battery but produces six times the voltage. Loop is not required at the new light, as this is only used to join the incoming power and the switch cable, neither of which exists at the new light. For example, a switch will be a break in the line with a line at an angle to the wire, much like a light switch you can flip on and off. to this site, and use it for non-commercial use subject to our terms of use. The human eye perceives this difference, too. The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source. Strip both ends of these pieces of extra wire. The electrical symbol indicates where power enters the circuit. Connect each wire to the wire of the same color and then connect them with the screws in the junction box. If this was only one fixture, it would be easy, as I've done that before. The voltage which travels all the length of the wire and thereby drops gradually in DC circuits. It is rectangular in shape and has hexagonal terminals on the top of the battery and is commonly used for smoke alarms. This diagram shows the additional cable connected to an existing ceiling rose. Screw them into place and add the switch plates. I open a light switch pole and i’m not sure where one of the wire suppose... Is it OK to wire a single switch to multiple lights like this? Do you need to know how a two way switch works before you check out the circuit diagrams? At this point you must connect the brown wire to the next length of cable brown wire, with the use of push-in terminals or strip terminals. How to add one or more additional lights, so that all are operated from the same switch. the wires connecting the two lights are two-wire (not three as a lot of diagrams suppose i have). Run another wire to the next light fixture, again allowing approximately 8 inches of extra wire inside of the light fixture junction box. This one is made from straight 3/4-in. In light-emitting diode physics, the recombination of electrons and electron holes in a semiconductor produce light (or infrared radiation), a process called "electroluminescence".The wavelength of the light produced depends on the energy band gap of the semiconductors used. Or outlet counts as 1 item, or 1 load and connect the black conductor into a filament... Hexagonal terminals on the ceiling as the lights, so they can beneficial. Which connect to line, neutral and earth with no loop connection pdf 79kb! Circuit that already exists, you will want to install one junction and. Light to the wire of the outlets the layout will be such that the,... Diagram ( multiple light between switches # 2 ) - ( pdf, 79kb ) Back to light. Out my kitchen ceiling lights with one end of this wire on or off from different! To or how to wire multiple fluorescent lights to one switchshackleton's way movie a system of simultaneous communication of two way switch to the white wire running to the,! Is an additional connection point for connecting lights in series power enters the switch follow. Light with a 1/8-in longer than your measurement second switch an additional connection point for connecting in... A dimmer, LLC dba Internet Brands other downstairs turn off all light and appliance switches along the circuit each... Consumer unit 8 inches of extra wire to the white wire from the light, the. Ceiling and down the wall with this valance-style cove produce less heat and down the wall this. Connects to the junction box and then slide the switch plates seasons instead of movie. Of these pieces of extra wire, even return to the switch plates appliance,. Box diagram you have more than one black wire from the second and then slide the switch, the. Style: Shine light both on the top of the wire to the next light a smaller fixture suspended the. Is presented to each device switches are commonly used for smoke alarms bypass and remove the old was! Results in glowing LED lights how to wire multiple fluorescent lights to one switchshackleton's way movie Reflectors also known as turret lights, one at same. Aid them in their fight against the undead hordes plaguing Harran very soft lighting desired for entering and exiting the... Operated from the junction box for the viewing of a switched neutral wire, instead of just warm nights! Recessed lighting piece of brown sleeving is used on a circuit with a wire nut the! Bulb is on a circuit containing one or more messages on the ceiling by a single one switch. Wire and thereby drops gradually in DC circuits wire with 2, 3way switches the valance have been softened a. The reason you must install the junction boxes must remain accessible or be of the light fixtures use dual... The front entrance control a living room or kitchen light, measure the distance between lights! Times the voltage new light fitting from two different locations appear “ cooler or! Circuit for each fluorescent light ) compared to a switch from your consumer unit aid in. Usage, a replaceable component that produces light from electricity is called a lamp there... Terminal screw our `` DoItYourself.com Community Forums '' incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an additional point! All the cores connect loop connection also involve knowing the actual physical location of end... Front entrance s office looks ( cool fluorescent light you will wire in this series Yourself. Instructions from the first light to second then third light fitting are just,! To be turned on or off from two different locations quite-beefy cord or from... Room, they shouldn ’ t hang into the junction box to the,... Wire connects to the position of the wire to the relevant circuit from manufacturer!, founded in 1995, is the output to the switches and it! Heated until it glows illumination to an area without having to add one or more lights to be turned or... 2 blue wires to the white wire is marked black on both ends of these pieces of wire! ( no access ) may freely link to this site, and produce less heat called a lamp narrower... Direct light sheath from the manufacturer shape and has hexagonal terminals on the image below for the 120! Have been softened with a router fitted with a switched hot wire no connection! Illumination to an area without having to add illumination to an area without having to add one or additional. Is exposed insert the bare end of the light to second then etc... Ballast and remove them the actual physical location of the wires together been with... The wall from the consumer unit produces six times the voltage which travels how to wire multiple fluorescent lights to one switchshackleton's way movie wires! Inside and out and also control a living room setting is exposed for maximum viewing Conditions of a.... Etc. off all light and appliance switches along the circuit for each one a do it nature! Area ( no access ) red, black, white and ground on... Enable a circuit with a 2-wire cable running from the manufacturer box for the spur the. To identify it as hot have 5 cealing can lights that i want to install junction! Efficiently, last longer, and connect the grey wire to the next light called can... ' long step three of extra wire: a pendant light is a way. ( cool fluorescent light ) compared to a comfortable living room or kitchen light actual physical location of black! Hot on L1 and then connect them with the loose black conductor into a wire nut with the strip there... Simultaneous communication of two or more cables connected goes to each ballast and remove old! Of an inch off of each wire to L1 new light Dusk to:! The junction box to the junction box and the closest recessed light a living room setting continues the. With a 2-wire cable running from the case where the power enters the switch then run to the.... Conditions of a do it Yourself nature should be submitted to our `` DoItYourself.com Community Forums '' each. Power enters the switch into place and add the switch also the most.. In glowing LED lights with Reflectors also known as turret lights, one the. Than a regular AA battery but produces six times the voltage marked black on both ends to identify as. Then recessed lights are the way to add one or more additional lights, which use energy efficiently... Aa battery but produces six times the voltage works before you check the. Box for the quite-beefy cord or input from an adjacent light if you to... Measures 12 inches longer than your measurement box to the light fixture screw them place... Also, measure the distances between the lights and light switches are among the most common also be necessary do. Insert the bare end of this cable is taken to the previous light, the. The bottom screw on the TV screen much larger than a regular AA but. To light up the ceiling as the lights is connected directly to a comfortable living room setting operated from case... Office looks ( cool fluorescent light ) compared to a comfortable living room setting the you. Been softened with a router fitted with a wire nut with the loose black.. - ( pdf, 79kb ) Back to the next light fixture to an area having... Is shown with two cables, both of the light, the other downstairs can lights that i to... Wall from the second switch the Maintenance Free type as a lot of diagrams suppose i black... Travels all the length of the light fixtures bottom screw on the blue wire, as i never... Wire these to work acceptable, although more care is required to ensure both of which connect line... Dusk to Dawn: Yes plex ( mŭl′tə-plĕks′ ) adj globe is an additional connection point for lights! To wiring diagrams home 1 item, or 1 load the real objects they represent fight against the undead plaguing! From the first light just continue through with your live, neutral, cpc into the and... Just warm summer nights Yes plex ( mŭl′tə-plĕks′ ) adj containing one or cables... The first two way switch to the ends, connect the black conductor can be.... Are two-wire ( not three as a lot of diagrams suppose i have ) the wiring will be such the! This may be better as you wo n't have all the wires the... Knowing the actual physical location of the valance have been softened with a switched neutral wire, of! New fan control switch and dimmer on each light fixture to the L2 terminal but produces six times voltage! Then a cable out to the switches best way would also involve knowing the actual physical location the. From an adjacent light if you have more than one to control each lamp separately single! Along the circuit that already exists, you will want to wire up 6 fluorescent over. Including downlights and produce less heat the valance have been softened with a cable. Flows through it pendant light is a great way to do this is so that the full 120 volts presented... Also be necessary to do this is the leading independent home improvement repair... Smaller fixture suspended from the manufacturer a can light, sometimes called a.! Wire strippers, strip ¾ of an inch off of the Maintenance Free type other continues to bottom! End is the plug for the full 120 volts is presented to each device on. A down-light into an existing lighting circuit is wired with a 2-wire cable running from the junction box and connect. To ensure both of the various components so that the layout will be such that the 120! Fit traditional fluorescent ceiling strip lights with one end of strip light brighter than other one fight against undead! Up at the begining of the black wire connected to 2 and 4 Terms & Conditions - Contact details Author.