Tourism has played an increasingly important role in the economy, though this sector has been vulnerable to global financial instability. Thereafter it was successively a crown colony, a self-governing colony (1856), and a dominion (1907). In the five years 1901–6 the number of Australians in New Zealand increased from 26,991 to 47,256. The North Island was beginning to assert itself economically, especially the cities of Auckland and Wellington. New Zealand was the first country to allow women to vote in 1893. Government assisted immigration schemes also saw the settler population double during the 1870s to around 500,000. Otherwise horses dominated everything else. The 2013 census took place on Tuesday, 5 March 2013. The 1898 Old-Age Pensions Act offered a small means-tested pension to destitute older people 'deemed to be of good character'. Some of New Zealand's coins feature characters from The Hobbit. of the Males and Females under and over 15 Years in the Principal Maori Tribes, according to the Results of the Census of March, 1901. Because of its numerous harbours and fjords, the country has an extremely long coastline relative to its area. Greymouth (Māori: Māwhera) is the largest town in the West Coast region in the South Island of New Zealand, and the seat of the Grey District Council. Can you tell us more about the information on this page? 52, No. Niue and the Cook Islands are self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. Identify the one with the larger population. In 1870 he embarked upon a massive loans-funded programme of public works which invested heavily in railways and roads. Hopes for a brighter future were raised with the first successful shipment of frozen meat to England in 1882. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. With confidence restored in an economy based on agriculture, the transformation of the landscape from forest to farmland intensified. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The declining population is expected to continue in the years to come in New Zealand, but the population will still be growing- just at a slower rate. The Polynesians who migrated to the island brought over their traditional beliefs and practices. New Zealand was one of the last sizable land areas suitable for habitation to be populated by human beings. Some had previously come from Britain, a few were New Zealanders returning home, but four out of seven were Australian-born. New Zealand now gained a reputation as ‘the social laboratory of the world’. Whereas the Empire had a total population of 384 million in 1900, India alone has a population of 1.3 billion today. By the end of the century Māori held less than 15% of the land that had been in their possession in 1840. A New Zealand census was held in March 1901. Perhaps you have a related experience you would like to share? The entry of Britain into the European Community in the early 1970s, however, forced New Zealand to expand its trade relations with other countries. Wellington Harbour, Wellington, New Zealand. The large runholders of the South Island in particular were taxed heavily in a bid to free up more land for settlement. This site is produced by the History Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. As New Zealand entered the final third of the 19th century the South Island dominated the economy, largely due to the impact of wool and gold. Professor of Economics, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Corrections? Māori had continued to resist the loss of land. Māori were the first to arrive in New Zealand, journeying in canoes from Hawaiki about 1,000 years ago. Heyy, Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). New Zealand was the largest country in Polynesia when it was annexed by Great Britain in 1840. China’s population in 1900, during the Qing Empire, was only about a third of the People’s Republic of China’s population of 1.4 billion today. The population was given as 815,862, consisting of 43,112 Māori, 31 Moriori, and 772,719 others. Results from the 2018 Census show New Zealand’s cultural make-up is becoming more diverse after high population growth in the past five years. Not all comments posted. NZ in the 19th century Complementing this increasingly singular political vision was the conviction that New Zealand's future prosperity lay in the conversion of bush to farmland. Chart and table of Australia population from 1950 to 2021. The Māori population was under 40,000. People voted with their feet by leaving for places like Australia. The transformation of New Zealand from a Māori to a non-Māori world was complete. Te Whiti and Tohu were imprisoned and sent into exile in the South Island. World Economics makes available of world’s most comprehensive GDP database covering over 130 countries with historical GDP PPP data from 1870-2019, building on the lifetimes work of Angus Maddison. Current projections believe that the annual growth rate will peak in 2020 at 0.94% … In December 1769 Captain Cook and the French explorer Jean-François-Marie de Surville unknowingly passed within a relatively short distance of each other during a storm off Cape Maria van Diemen, Northland. Chart and table of New Zealand population from 1950 to 2021. The discovery of gold in Central Otago in 1861 helped Dunedin become New Zealand's largest town. A Dutchman, Abel Tasman, was the first European to sight the country but it was the British who made New Zealand part of their empire. This quiz will show you two countries. The capital city is Wellington and the largest urban area Auckland; both are located on the North Island. Technology was still semi-industrial with some steam power emerging through the railways and some traction engines emerging. This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. “In some ways,” Hillary suggested, “I believe I epitomise the average New Zealander: I have modest abilities, I combine these with a good deal of determination, and I rather like to succeed.”. Population Pyramids: New Zealand - 1990. There was no state welfare and questions were asked about what support could be offered to New Zealand's poor. Economically the country was dependent on the export of agricultural products, especially to Great Britain. Home The temperance and prohibition movement gathered momentum here as calls were made to address the impact of alcohol on the lives of New Zealand families. Meet the NZHistory.net.nz team. The New Zealand government department Statistics New Zealand conducts a census of population and dwellings every five years. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. There was an acceptance that the government had a responsibility in helping settlers realise their dreams and access to land became an important part of the political agenda. New Zealand Economic Papers: Vol. New Zealand is about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) long (north-south) and about 280 miles (450 km) across at its widest point. Page 4. The total population in New Zealand was estimated at 5.0 million people in 2019, according to the latest census figures. New Zealand GDP (Gross Domestic Product) was INT$172.41billion for 2019 in PPP terms. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. While the impact and pace of this depression was uneven across the country some argued that it had been made worse by the borrowing of the 1870s. We have 7 biographies, 2 articles, 2 comments related to NZ in the 19th century. This is a semi-contiguous cartogram. New Zealand Population Projections. In the early 21st century, Asians were the fastest-growing demographic group. The history of religions in New Zealand dates back to the establishment of the first communities in the area. New Zealand is a remote land—one of the last sizable territories suitable for habitation to be populated and settled—and lies more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Australia, its nearest neighbour. Sunset on the Waikato River, Hamilton, New Zealand. In 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed, an agreement between the British Crown and Maori. Author of. Other indicators visualized on maps: (In English only, for now) Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) The social and cultural gap between New Zealand’s two main groups—the indigenous Maori of Polynesian heritage and the colonizers and later immigrants from the British Isles and their descendants—has decreased since the 1970s, though educational and economic differences between the two groups remain. historical and predicted populations (both sexes) for the period 1950-2100 (millions) De facto population in New Zealand as of 1 July of the year indicated. It also began to develop a much more extensive and varied industrial sector. Explanation: Population estimates for 2018 and later are based on the results of the 2018 census. Overview of NZ in the 19th century: 1800-40, Overview of NZ in the 19th century: 1840-70, Overview of NZ in the 19th century: 1870-1900. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Not everyone had the right to vote in these early elections, but over the next half century New Zealand became one of the most democratic nations in the world. Alcohol, it was argued, caused men to forget their responsibilities to their families. The current population of Australia in 2021 is 25,788,215, a 1.13% increase from 2020.; The population of Australia in 2020 was 25,499,884, a 1.18% increase from 2019.; The population of Australia in 2019 was 25,203,198, a 1.23% increase from 2018. By 1830 a thousand European ships would visit New Zealand shores. The population of the whole Grey District is 13,600, which accounts for 41% of the West Coast's inhabitants. Source: T. Papps, ‘Growth and distribution of population.’ In Population of New Zealand / Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 12, 2 vols. Thereafter it was successively a crown colony, a self-governing colony (1856), and a dominion (1907). Source: Statistics New Zealand / Te Tari Tatau (web). Immigration from other areas—Asia, Africa, and eastern Europe—has also made a mark, and New Zealand culture today reflects these many influences. New Zealand was the largest country in Polynesia when it was annexed by Great Britain in 1840. This keenly fought and at times bitter debate culminated with New Zealand women becoming the first in the world to gain the right to vote in national elections in 1893. – an increase in the non-Māori population of 9.86% over the previous census in 1896. I just want to know what the technology they had during the 1870s, in New Zealand. Source United Nations Population Division . New Zealand's wetapunga, one of the heaviest insects in the world, can weigh more than a sparrow. A recurring theme in this debate was the place of alcohol in New Zealand society. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Canterbury lived literally on the ‘sheep's back' to became the country's wealthiest province. Quiz. The provincial governments that had been established in the 1850s were abolished in 1876 and national politics began to assume greater importance. In 2020, population for New Zealand was 4.96 million persons. Thousands of young men rushed to New Zealand hoping to make their fortune as they followed the gold from Otago to the West Coast and later to Thames in the North Island. The Liberals promoted themselves as the champion of the ‘ordinary New Zealander'. The discovery of gold in Central Otago in 1861 helped Dunedin become New Zealand's largest town. The Liberals' vision for ‘God's own country' also saw more Māori land obtained for settlement. These concerns also reflected the development of a more settled urban society. Despite a brief revival in wheat, most farm products suffered from low prices. The population of New Zealand was enumerated from 1858 to the present. From 1879 the Taranaki settlement of Parihaka became the centre of opposition to confiscation. In many rural areas water was employed to drive mills, hydraulic mining, Kauri driving dams or steamers. The census scheduled for 2011 was cancelled due to the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, and legislation was introduced to hold the next census in 2013. Owning land was an obvious sign of success. Dominated by the values and the ambitions of the new settlers, New Zealand now resembled a nation in the modern sense of the word. miles). The Greymouth urban area had an estimated population of 9,870 (June 2014 estimates). Two million was … MALE FEMALE TOTAL Mongonui County 868 599 1467 Bay of Islands County 1255 925 2180 Hokianga County 367 221 588 Hobson County 1754 1097 2851 Whangarei County 2254 1699 3953 Rodney County 2217 1716 3933 New Zealand, Maori Aotearoa, island country in the South Pacific Ocean, the southwesternmost part of Polynesia. Despite New Zealand’s isolation, the country has been fully engaged in international affairs since the early 20th century, being an active member of a number of intergovernmental institutions, including the United Nations. As the 1860s drew to a close gold production fell and wool prices slipped. Time-lapse video of New Zealand's varied landscapes. A significant demographic milestone was reached in 1886 - for the first time the majority of non-Māori people living here were New Zealand-born rather than immigrants. Minority rights and race-related issues continue to play an important role in New Zealand politics. Few struck it rich on the goldfields, but the collective value of the gold that was discovered kick-started the economy. Multinational food companies are moving their processing plants to Australia so that New Zealand-grown food often finds its way back via that country. 1, tables 8 & 17; Ian Pool, Te iwi Maori: a New Zealand population, past, present & projected. Updates? There were twice as many men as women among them, and a high proportion were single. But New Zealand’s economic growth was very sluggish between 1950 and the early 1990s, and most Western European countries, as well as several in East Asia, overtook New Zealand in terms of real per capita income. Comments will be reviewed prior to posting. Population According to the New Zealand Statistics office, the estimated number of resident population in the country is 4,403,000 as of March 31, 2011. The scheduled census for 2011 was postponed to 2013 due to the devastating effect of the earthquake that hit Christchurch on February 22, 2011. The ascent of Mount Everest by New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary with Sherpa Tenzing Norgay in 1953 was one of the defining moments of the 20th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. One of the beliefs that made up the traditional Maori religion included the belief in whakapapa, a system through which all the objects in the world were linked since they were believed to have a common origin. An armed force ran amok in the undefended settlement. Weste… Over the last 50 years, population of New Zealand grew substantially from 2.85 million to 4.96 million persons rising at an increasing annual rate that reached a maximum of 4.96% in 1991 and then decreased to 0.77% in 2020. Most continued to see themselves as British and referred to Britain as ‘home'. As a result questions were asked about the place of the family and women in New Zealand society. The fare across the Tasman was only £2. New York: United Nations, 1985, vol. The country … The general election that year brought New Zealand's first political party, the Liberals, to power. Showing the Maori Population of New Zealand according to the Results of a Census taken in March, 1901. A young, mobile and male-dominated population was typical of many frontier societies. New Zealand will hit the milestone of 5 million people in 2020 and new census data shows an increasingly diverse population. Editor They were the first European visitors to New Zealand since Abel Tasman's brief encounter in 1642. Canterbury lived literally on the ‘sheep's back' to became the country's wealthiest province. The country comprises two main islands—the North and South islands—and a number of small islands, some of them hundreds of miles from the main group. The settlement's leaders Te Whiti-o-Rongomai and Tohu Kākahi encouraged their followers to uproot survey pegs and plough up roads and fences erected on land they considered to be theirs. The 2020 figures are provisional. This quiz is based on Britannica’s list of the world’s populations, so review that before you start. It is the sole home, for example, of the long-beaked, flightless kiwi, the ubiquitous nickname for New Zealanders. It is a member of the Commonwealth. But there were signs that they were also beginning to identify with this place. But Seddon's image of 'God's own' excluded ‘Chinese or other Asiatics’. The term New Zealander now had a wider application. The market for land dried up. This was more than a matter of self-sufficiency. Living standards in New Zealand were among the highest in the world between the late nineteenth century and the 1960s. The line graph shows New Zealand’s population increasing from 800,000 people in 1900 to five million people in 2020. 204-226. It is the nature and consequences of these changes that are the basis of this broad survey of New Zealand in the 19th century. Panoramic view of Christchurch and Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand. From this movement grew the campaign for women's suffrage. (2018). Those beliefs formed the foundation of the traditional religion practiced in New Zealand. The country has slightly less surface area than the U.S. state of Colorado and a little more than the United Kingdom. The resident population of New Zealand reached 1 million in 1908. New Zealand administers the South Pacific island group of Tokelau and claims a section of the Antarctic continent. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The David Lange government and Labour’s changing leadership (1984–90), The James Bolger and Jennifer Shipley governments (1990–99), John Key’s first term as prime minister (2008–11), John Key’s second term as prime minister (2011–16), https://www.britannica.com/place/New-Zealand, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - New Zealand, New Zealand - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), New Zealand - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Explore the diverse landscapes of New Zealand. United Nations projections … Europe's ‘explosion outwards’ during the 18th and 19th centuries reached New Zealan… New Zealand is a land of great contrasts and diversity. New Zealand’s first parliamentary elections were held in 1853. Thousands of young men rushed to New Zealand hoping to make their fortune as they followed the gold from Otago to the West Coast and later to Thames in the North Island… By 1890 an export-led economic recovery was taking hold. Under the leadership of British statesman Edward G. Wakefield, the first British colonists to New Zealand arrive at Port Nicholson on Auckland Island. New Zealand - New Zealand - People: Contemporary New Zealand has a majority of people of European origin, a significant minority of Maori, and smaller numbers of people from Pacific islands and Asia. Provincial and central governments believed that the country's future growth and progress required the order and stability offered by family life. I. In addition to women's suffrage the Liberal government introduced a number of social welfare measures to protect New Zealand's most vulnerable. As New Zealand entered the final third of the 19th century the South Island dominated the economy, largely due to the impact of wool and gold. All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. With the arrival of Vogel immigrants also saw the introduction of more and more industry as the population grew and was able to support more technology. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. He viewed the Chinese with considerable dislike, as did many in New Zealand's mining communities. In 1642, The economists and New Zealand population: problems and policies 1900–1980s. New Zealand was now able to position itself as ‘Britain's farmyard' by exporting meat, butter and cheese. By the 1920s it controlled almost all of its internal and external policies, although it did not become fully independent until 1947, when it adopted the Statute of Westminster. II. There had been arrests and ongoing peaceful resistance before the government decided to act decisively in November 1881. The Liberal era is synonymous with Richard John Seddon, Premier from 1893 until his death in 1906. Unemployment grew in urban areas. Active volcanoes, spectacular caves, deep glacier lakes, verdant valleys, dazzling fjords, long sandy beaches, and the spectacular snowcapped peaks of the Southern Alps on the South Island—all contribute to New Zealand’s scenic beauty. New Zealand's isolation was at an end. By the early 2000s, New Zealand’s GDP per capita was in the bottom half of the developed world. One solution to the boom-bust nature of New Zealand's economy was to develop the national infrastructure. 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