In addition, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium, three of the most common minerals in beef cattle diets, were identified as being of occasional concern for toxic-ity. Sulfur. The requirement for dietary sulfur is 0.2%. Considerable attention has been given to high sulfur levels in ethanol byproducts and the affect this may have on cattle health and performance. Cattle are much less able to tolerate saline water. Avoiding Mineral Toxicity in Cattle. Toxicity from iron can result in enteritis, liver necrosis, icterus and hemoglobinuria. Specific toxic dosages are not known but probably exceed 4 g/kg. Hydrogen sulfide is the compound that causes the rotten egg smell related to sulfur. Sulphur toxicity in cattle begins when the total intake of sulphur from DDGs and other feed ingredients and sulphates in water exceeds an invisible boundary of 0.4 per cent of cattle’s dry matter feed intake. • Essential nutrient for rumen microbes. In addition, toxicity from zinc will result in lesions of gastroenteritis, renal necrosis and liver necrosis. Effects of High Sulfur Intake. The Need for Sulfur • Essential nutrient for beef cattle. Most ruminants need 0.18 to 0.24 percent dry matter of dietary sulfur. – Amino acids methionine, cysteine, and cystine. • Maximum tolerable concentration – 0.40 % of DM. • Requirement for sulfur – 0.15% of DM. September 2009 While most forms of sulfur are relatively nontoxic, hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic to cattle. Dietary levels of sulfur that are above 0.4 percent of the dry matter are considered potentially toxic. When dietary sulfur is consumed by ruminants it is reduced to sulfide by ruminal microorganisms. Water with 0.25% salt caused significant reductions in milk yields. Elemental sulfur is considered one of the least toxic minerals, however, hydrogen sulfide, a product of sulfate metabolism in the rumen, is as toxic as cyanide (NRC, 2000). These cattle exhibited many of the symptoms listed above although they were unable to verify the apparent toxicity clinically from abnormally high rumen or blood S concentrations. – B-vitamins thiamine and biotin. Sulphur from different sources. Sulfur (S) plays a key role in ruminant animal nutrition. ... water deprivation and the resulting salt toxicity, lead poisoning and sulfur toxicity. Lime-sulfur, which is a complex of sulfides, may cause irritation, discomfort, or … The studies into finding methods that allow feeding high sulphur diets to cattle without reducing performance or causing toxicity have been extensive and on-going. Unfortunately, it doesn’t take much sulphur in DDGs to poison cattle. The MTL for sulfur was set at 0.3% for high-concentrate diets and 0.6% for high-forage diets. Sulfur deficiency symptoms include decreased feed intake, unthrifty appearance, dullness of … Elemental sulfur is practically devoid of toxicity, although poisoning has occurred occasionally when large amounts were mixed in cattle feed. Research findings have clarified many aspects of how toxicity occurs, how the cattle respond to excess sulfur intake, and suggest that many dairy operations may have excess sulfur intake as well. cattle. Excessive sulfur interferes with the metabolism of selenium, copper, molybdenum and thiamin. Symptoms include progressive. were identified as being of frequent concern for toxicity in cattle: cadmium, copper, fluorine, lead, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and sulfur. In a case study in Michigan, subclinical sulfur toxicity was suspected in dairy cows and heifers. At the moment it appears the best method and remedy to prevent sulphur toxicity in cattle is careful regulation of total dietary sulphur intake. 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