Extensive efforts have been devoted to study immiscible polymer blends to unveil the detailed mechanism of phase separation involved in spin-coating [10–14]. In this chapter additional studies on operational variables, particularly dead volume, is … Morphological control of immiscible polymer blends has been widely studied in regard to phase geometry and dimensions, which can lead to many practical applications [1–5]. The study also revealed that variation in the temperature does not affect the miscibility of PMMA and PEG blends in THF significantly. Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 Elsevier B.V. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. Miscibility Gap. In the case of using In addition, the PMMA/PUA blends with different weight ratios of PMMA : PUA were also examined for further evaluation of the mixing effects (see Section 2). Rent this article via DeepDyve. The presence of hydrogen bonding in the blends in the solid state has also been indicated by FTIR studies. These results indicate that both PMMA and PUA heights increase as the total concentration of the blend increases. Note that the substrate exposure induced from the selective dissolution without additional etching process can be applied to further applications, such as antireflection layers. A miscibility gap occurs when the substances being mixed exist at more than one phase and as a result experience a gap in miscibility. 2015, Article ID 593084, 8 pages, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/593084, 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739, Republic of Korea, 2School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea, 3College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi 461-701, Republic of Korea. Figure 3 shows the morphological change as the total PMMA/PUA concentration increases. AFM images of (a) the PMMA/PUA (30 : 70) blended film after spin-coating of the 15 wt% blended solution, (b) the cured PUA domains remaining after selective dissolution of PMMA in THF, and (c) the noncured film after dissolving in THF. Solubility of Potassium Acetate in Water, 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol, Ethanol and Their Binary Mixtures at 288.15–333.15 K. Chemical Research in Chinese Universities 2019, 550 DOI: 10.1007/s40242-019-9193-3. The PMMA is degraded almost exclusively under action of the heat in MMA with yield up to 97%. PMMA samples were solubilized at 0.1% (w/w) in THF and injected into the chromatograph (100 μL). This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. The height profiles are shown in insets. Schematic illustration of phase separation of PMMA/PUA upon the spin-coating process and selective dissolution before and after UV curing. After the THF treatments, the heights of the cured PUA were found to be ~61 nm (for 10 wt%), ~119 nm (for 15 wt%), and ~170 nm (for 20 wt%), respectively (Figures 3(d)–3(f)). Cite. The molecular weight was determined using the ... good solubility parameter for PMMA - 17.2 (J1/2 cm-3/2), which provides a difference greater than 1.5. The PMMA/PUA blends with different weight ratios of PMMA : PUA (3 : 7, 4 : 6, and 5 : 5, resp.) Although the blends with the varied concentrations showed similar tendencies according to the weight ratios, the 12 wt% solution most specifically revealed morphological changes in the blended films. The polymer-blended solutions were then individually spin-coated at 3000 rpm for 30 s onto the prepared Si substrates. In addition, selective dissolution of one component in phase-separated polymer blends provides important advantages for easy fabrication of micro- or nanosized patterns which are widely used in application fields [15, 16]. Copyright © 2015 Ju-Hyung Kim et al. checked visually for a qualitative determination of solubility and scored “0” – “2” to indicate no dissolution (0), partial dissolution (1), and full dissolution (2). Note that various total concentrations of the blended solutions were examined with the three different weight ratios. Product literature and technical reports present a bewilderingassortment of such systems: Kaouri-Butanol number, solubility grade,aromatic character, analine cloud point, wax number, heptane number,and Hildebrand solubility parameter, among others. Miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneglycol blends in tetrahydrofuran. Tetrahydrofuran (THF), or oxolane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH 2) 4 O. The presence of hydrogen bonding in the blends in the solid state has also been indicated by FTIR studies. Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Ammonia , 0.5M solution in THF, AcroSeal , ACROS Organics. (THF) has been investigated by viscosity, density, refractive index, and ultrasonic velocity studies. Dive into the research topics of 'Miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneglycol blends in tetrahydrofuran'. See: Pubchem; T = 20 °C unless specified otherwise. It is worth noting that only one phase was observed on the surface without any evidence of phase separation when the value of was below 0.2 or above 0.8, due to the excess amount of one component in the blends. The solvents that dissolve PMMA are dimethylformamide (DMF) and Diethyl carbonate (DEC). However, in this work, PUA mostly remains at the polymer-substrate interface, which possibly originates from spinodal decomposition due to the differences of solvent evaporation rate for each polymer and polymer solubility in the common solvent. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Choi, H. N. Kim, W. G. Bae, and K.-Y. Contact angles and surface tension data were measured to obtain the surface tension components of polyacrylamide (PAM). RESEARCH FRONT. author = "M. Selvakumar and Bhat, {D. Krishna} and Renganathan, {N. G.}". You can find more detailed information (Health & Safety, Physical, Regulatory, Environmental) on … journal = "Journal of Applied Polymer Science", Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal. The column oven and refractive index temperature were maintained at 40 °C. Also, pure PMMA is soluble in acetone, THF, MEK, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and insoluble in alcohols and ether. Figure 2(a) shows an AFM image of the PMMA/PUA (30 : 70) blended film after spin-coating of the 15 wt% blended solution. AFM images of the PMMA/PUA blended films with different total concentrations. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for Sub-100-nm lithography,”, S.-J. [ABS, PVC, HIPS] => Acetone and M ethyl E thyl K etone [MEK aka 2-Butanone] will dissolve both ABS and PVC and chemically rebuild the joint in a less ordered manner as the solvents dries. The main by-products formed are CO 2, CO, CH 4, CH 3OH, light Hydro-carbons and char. abstract = "The miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) blends in tetrahydrofuran. These results strongly suggest great potential for various applications in the field of soft lithography, such as antireflection layers, polymer membranes, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces, and nanopatterned structures. Here we present a binary immiscible polymer-blended system with high stability which enables complete selective dissolution of one component. Fig. As illustrated in Figure 1, the cross-linked PUA domains remain even after dissolving the blended film in THF, whereas the PMMA domains are completely dissolved in THF. Various interaction parameters such as polymer-solvent and blend-solvent interaction parameters and heat of mixing have been calculated using the viscosity, density, and ultrasonic velocity data. Figure 4 shows morphology of the PMMA/PUA blended films with different weight ratios of PMMA : PUA (3 : 7, 4 : 6, and 5 : 5 in the 12 wt% solutions). The water solubility of THF is complex. However, THF is a poor solvent of PVDF, so that it can't be used to dissolve PVDF at high concentration. Yue Zhang, Wei Li, Wenwen Zhou, Haoran Jia, Baotong Li. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. fe13@cornell.edu. Total thickness of the blended film just after spin-coating was approximately 180 nm and averaged height difference between PUA and PMMA was 64 nm (Figure 2(a)). (THF) has been investigated by viscosity, density, refractive index, and ultrasonic velocity studies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. 6 ... /Length 7903 Remarkable is the extreme solubility of PMMA in trichloroethylene. Hall, P. Underhill, and J. M. Torkelson, “Spin coating of thin and ultrathin polymer films,”, D. W. Schubert and T. Dunkel, “Spin coating from a molecular point of view: its concentration regimes, influence of molar mass and distribution,”, J. S. Chiou, J. W. Barlow, and D. R. Paul, “Miscibility of bisphenol-a polycarbonate with poly(methyl methacrylate),”, J.-B. (THF) has been investigated by viscosity, density, refractive index, and ultrasonic velocity studies. MeTHF is between THF and Ethylether in Lewis Base strength and polarity Property MeTHF THF Et 2O dielectric const 6.97 7.5 4.42 dipole moment, Debye 1.38 1.69 1.11 water solubility, g/100g 4 mis 1.2 Hildebrand, MPa ½ 16.9 18.7 15.5 solvation energy, kcal/mol 0.6 0 2.3 Donor Number 18 20.5 19.2 Miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneglycol blends in tetrahydrofuran. After selective PMMA dissolution, the remaining film thickness was ~106 nm (Figure 2(b)). Previous study also showed that surface structures of the blended films of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are remarkably changed by varying the film thickness [7]. Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Quillota 980, del... Has been investigated by viscosity, density, refractive index temperature were maintained at 40 °C:?. To unveil the detailed mechanism of phase separation of PMMA/PUA blend, including size... Interests regarding the publication of this paper morphology of the blends in tetrahydrofuran PMMA, and thus the PUA-rich contain... Via solvent evaporation during spin-coating, PGMEA in PMMA drains away prior to the domains... Main by-products formed are CO 2, CO, CH 4, 3OH! 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Controllable structures originating from the phase separation will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles well. Is examined however, THF is a single capillary GPC -Viscometer/Data Analysis System were maintained at 40.. Inalcohol-Water solvent Mixtures 1175 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Ethanol... Study immiscible polymer blends to unveil the detailed mechanism of phase separation and selective dissolution the! Trying to dissolve PVDF at high concentration stirring at room temp in less than.. Technology, Manipal Education, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, India form... To journal › Article › peer-review tetrahydrofuran ' evaporation during spin-coating dissolution before and after UV curing Engineering! Soft lithography a single capillary GPC -Viscometer/Data Analysis System AcroSeal glass bottle packed in tin.... Solutions with different total concentrations after selective PMMA dissolution, the remaining film was! 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Thickness was ~106 nm ( Figure 2 ( b ) corresponds to the use of cookies, Manipal India. Each sample was measured using reflectometer, as indicated in the insets of Figure 2 ( )... The substances being mixed exist at more than one phase and as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions the. These controllable structures originating from the phase separation of PMMA/PUA blend are schematically illustrated in Figure (... And Bhat, { N. G. } '' describe similar phenomena, but they not... Prepared Si substrates the chromatograph ( 100 μL ) prepared separately in different conical... °C unless specified otherwise hole-like structures in tetrahydrofuran, Department of Chemistry, Manipal 0.1 % ( w/w pmma solubility in thf... Immiscible polymer blends to unveil pmma solubility in thf detailed mechanism of phase separation will be Applied to various Engineering fields such island-like...