All the other guards received long prison sentences. There were also other causes of death including work accidents and bombardment by the Allied Forces. Nicknamed the Benjo Maru as Benjo means ‘toilet’ -due to the number of POWs suffering dysentery on board. The Changi Peninsula had been the British Army's principal base area in Singapore. *3 –Australian war memorial archives https://www.awm.gov.au/events/conference/2002/degroen.asp. In normal times the prison would house 800 prisoners but at one point during the war, it had ten times that. There is a great deal of evidence the ICRC did visit some camps which were made ‘presentable’ to them by the Japanese. Commander Kunito Hatakeyama, who was in direct command of the massacres, was sentenced to execution by hanging. Hokusen Maru  (AKA Haro Maru, Haru Mary, Benjo Maru, Horror Maru). Prisoners of war at the dock area in Yokohama, Japan, waiting to be processed prior to boarding a hospital ship. 1 Sub Camp, Fukuoka Group, Najima, Kashii PoW Camp, Japan, JC /248 Neawitz Camp,Omori Camp, Tokyo Group, Japan, JC /251 Kanose Camp D16, Hiroshima Group, Japan, JC /254 Yokohama No. The Far East Prisoner of War records are a part of the larger Prisoners of War 1715-1945 collection from The National Archives. Prisoners of war at the dock area in Yokohama, Japan, waiting to be processed prior to boarding a hospital ship. On April 23, 1942, the five hundred American and Western internees were moved to Camp Holmes from Camp John  Hay, a former base of the Philippine constabulary, five miles away. It should be noted that only in the case of Japan ‘proper’ (i.e. Singapore's civilian prison, Changi Gaol, was also on this peninsula. Most main camps had sub-camps near workplaces:  all POWs under Japanese control were required to work irrespective of rank- most large camps had as many as 12 subcamps. Lack of water, outside latrines, lack of screens for doors and windows, crowded buildings and the general lethargy of the prisoners contributed to poor sanitation. This was when the Japanese renamed her ‘Imbari maru’. [online] Skwirk.com 37,583 prisoners from the United Kingdom, Commonwealth and Dominions, 28,500 from Netherlands and 14,473 from the United States were released after the surrender of Japan. While in San Fernando, 15 weak or wounded prisoners were loaded on a truck, believing they would be taken to Bilibid for treatment. As a result, the Japanese Navy established Ofuna Transitory Prison Camp in Ofuna, Kanagawa Prefecture. On the other hand, some were closed. Prisoners in Japan, on the whole, fared better, especially those at Zentsuji (where one man received 80 letters), than men in the Dutch East Indies where the number seldom reached double figures. The Japanese army decided its construction was vital as it was too dangerous to ship armed forces, goods and materials by sea and run the risk of US submarines (see the Hellships section to note the very high number sunk by Allied forces submarines during this period). While there, the prisoners were afforded no sanitary conditions whatsoever. Anyone who fell behind the march was shot or bayoneted to death, their comrades forced to bury them or be executed themselves. Jinguashi (Chinkuashih) in modern-day Taiwan –Kinkaseki is the Japanese name for it, ran from 1942-45. The camps were mainly set up in mines and the industrial areas such as Keihin (Tokyo and Yokohama), and Hanshin (Osaka and Kobe). However, it would have been an incredibly tough undertaking due to the hilly jungle terrain – too difficult to even consider. Following the Japanese surrender in 1945, these roles were reversed and the former captors of WWII became POWS on Blakang Mati and were housed in the same barracks. The Japanese treatment of prisoners of war in World War … The latter women’s camp was called Gloegoer II. Four other groups were sent to Fukuoka POW camps 1, 3, 4, and 17. Wada was sentenced to life imprisonment at hard labour. There are no ‘nominal lists’ currently known of those who worked and died on this railway, however: 6,982 casualties are commemorated in the Kanchanaburi War Cemetery (also known as Don-Rak cemetery) 129Km north of Bangkok. JAPAN'S forces were notorious for their ruthlessness and cruelty in World War II and tales of their sadism towards Allied prisoners have become … A rescue attempt (as per Cabanatuan) using US Rangers and Filipino guerrillas rescued 2,147 Allied servicemen and Civilians from this camp. Many of the Americans later attributed their relatively benign treatment, compared to internees in other camps, to the concern of Herod. The POWs were already in weak condition before embarkation, and they had to endure terrible conditions while aboard the transport ships (‘hell ships'). Mitsubishi, Nippon express etc. Most of the casualties of the infamous Burma-Siam railway are buried or commemorated in the cemeteries at Thanbyuzayat, Kanchanaburi & Chungkai with those who have no known grave remembered on the Rangoon or Singapore memorials. Roberts Barracks remains in use but the original buildings at Selerang were demolished in the 1980s. Jul 31, 2016 - Explore Theresa Steele's board "World War II: Prisoners of War", followed by 281 people on Pinterest. British Prisoner of War Films. Finally, in October, he was among 1000 prisoners judged fit to work; they were moved to a lumber camp on Mindanao to engage in manual labour. September 1945. 14) by an air raid and seven were killed by the A-Bomb in Nagasaki Mitsubishi Ship-Building Branch Camp (Fukuoka No. A 6,886-ton freighter on October 24, 1944, Arisan Maru was transporting 1,781 US & Allied military and civilian POWs when she was hit by a torpedo strike from an American submarine at about 5 p.m. she finally sank about 7 p.m. Only nine of the prisoners aboard survived the event -five escaped and made their way to China in one of the ship's two lifeboats. The men were regarded as not fit enough to be transferred to working areas but were shipped out of Changi anyway on 13 trains with no ventilation and little food or water. 14 September 1945. *4-‘The worlds merchant fleets’ by Roger Jordan 1999. Changi POW camps: TNA index reference & location: WO 367. On November 1, 1944, Asama Maru was torpedoed and sunk by the US Submarine ‘Atule’ 100 miles (160 km) south of the island of Pratas. A group of war prisoners from the Kwai bridge building camp undertake a harsh journey to Japan. Few ships were used almost exclusively for ferrying POWs, most were used for general transport for both POWs and troops (sometimes at the same time) and also were used for transporting goods and livestock, needless to say, holds were not cleaned or made habitable in any manner before POWs were locked into them. Brazil arrived at Moji, Japan with approximately 425 of 1,619 POWs that began the trip on Oryoku Maru on December 13, 1944. After the fall of Singapore 50,000 British and other Empire troops were gathered there, but very quickly work details gathered several thousand men from Changi and these were sent to various projects on Sumatra, Burma, and Thailand and other Japanese occupied territories. Hundreds of Japanese troops were killed in the 30-minute coordinated attack; the Americans suffered minimal casualties. After an exchange of salutes between the POWs and their senior officers, the firing squad opened fire. The POWs used the clothes that they had with them upon their arrival in Japan, and the camps provided work clothes such as tenugui (Japanese cotton towel), jikatabi (traditional work footwear), and gunte (work gloves made of cotton). WW2 People's War Homepage Archive List Timeline About This Site: Contact Us: Japanese Prisoner of war. POWs were then transferred to the Tamahoko Maru which was sunk 24/6/44 in Nagasaki bay with only 212 survivors. WO356 and WO357 both cover war crimes by the Imperial Japanese army and navy. Changi was liberated by troops of the 5th Indian Division on 5 September 1945 and within a week troops were being repatriated. On one march 2,790 POWs started, and only three survived. In addition to punching and slapping, the punishment could be meted out with a sword scabbard or the butt of a rifle. Located 4 km south (along the coast towards Singapore). In September and October 1943 several hundred Americans and Canadians, including a number from Hong Kong, walked with relief from the Teia Maru on to the Gripsholm at Marmagao in Portuguese India. Sailed from Singapore on 04/7/44 to Moji, Japan via Manila (Phillipines) arriving on 13/8/44 with 609 POWs. It was a place of starvation, torture and terror, a place of madness and, for many, death. Cruelly & ironically the Japanese frequently painted supply ships with Red Crosses, yet did not do the same for those vessels that deserved these markings. The prisoners of war suffered greatly at the hands of the guards for not cutting the rock quickly or well enough. They were forced to engage in the hard labour of constructing railways, roads, airfields, etc. Bare bulbs were used for the lights, and heat came from firepots or stoves made from shipping drums. The distribution of this mail among the prisoner-of-war and internment camps in Japan and Japanese-occupied territory was slow and haphazard. Australian Prisoners Of War: Sandakan, Japan, Female Pows And Europe, War Time Experiences, Australia And World War II, History Year 9, NSW | Online Education Home Schooling Skwirk Australia. US site –Covers all Allied POWs and has a great deal of statistical information on camps and many useful links to more information. The standard work schedule was eight hours a day with one day a week off, but POWs were often forced to work longer. Note: Hellships were frequently renamed or known by other names -AKA in these listings means 'also known as'. WO 361/2045 The Far East Prisoner of War records are a part of the larger Prisoners of War 1715-1945 collection from The National Archives. POWs never left the ship until September 2, 1944. Rashin Maru (AKA Canadian Prince/Potomac). Japanese Registers of POWs WWII - The records are contained in Japanese Registers of Allied Prisoners of War (PoWs) and civilian internees held in camps in Singapore, Second World War.This series comprises three registers which record the names of over 13,000 allied Prisoners of War and civilian internees of British and other nationalities during the Second World War. The firing squad, consisting of four Indian National Army* soldiers stood some 50 yards away. Such beatings could result from simply offending the guard in some way. 73-299-A, Flag US National, Prisoner of War (9023910757).jpg 3,072 × 1,353; 196 KB Ship sunk 21 September 1944 by an unidentified US submarine. Escapes among Caucasian prisoners were almost impossible because of the difficulty of men of Caucasian descent hiding in Asiatic societies, nearly all of those who attempted to escape were executed in front of their fellow POWs upon recapture, in some camps a further 10 POWs were also executed as a reprisal for the escape attempt. Since the Japanese did not sign the Geneva Convention rules of war, their treatment of POWs was extremely brutal. POWs& Soldiers", followed by 298 people on Pinterest. The Geneva Convention of 1929 established the rules for the treatment of prisoners of war that were used in World War II. Rangoon Prison, 1945. F- Thailand 7000 in F Force, left Changi for Thailand between 16-18 April 1943. Violence by the guards was often reported, and it was common to receive a Binta (strong slap on the face) or various kinds of beatings. See more ideas about World war ii, World war, Prisoners of war. As the Tamahoko (6,780 tons) settled in the water, hundreds of prisoners jumped into the sea and soon a Japanese whale-chaser appeared and started picking up survivors. After wandering for three days in the swamp, they contacted a band of Filipino guerrillas. In 1944 the officers were moved instead to Camp 'N' at Shamshuipo, and the Indian POWs from Ma Tau Chung Camp took up residence. There are also several records of the civilian internees kept at the Changi Museum's website. On arrival at Mojio, the POWs were split & sent to Moji & Kobe camps. However, on January 9th, the Enoura Maru was bombed and disabled while in harbour, killing about 350 men. The Japanese minesweeper had struck a Dutch laid mine off the coast and sunk with most hands, along with damage to 2 other Japanese minesweepers. The worst problem for prisoners in all North-east Asian camps was enduring the extreme cold in an undernourished state. Repairs were carried out by POW labour and by April the wooden trestle bridge was back in operation. These prisoners were then so mistreated that by the end of the war only 6 of the Australians had survived and every single one of the 700 British soldiers had died in … 56,000+ of those held by the Empire of Japan were recorded in the War Departments records now held at Kew under the title ‘BRITISH PRISONERS OF WAR HELD IN JAPAN OR JAPANESE-OCCUPIED TERRITORY’, There is a very extensive research guide HERE. There were two types of POW camps run by the Germans that soldiers were assigned to. POWs reported various atrocities of these types in their testimony before the War Tribunals after the war. Sailed from Singapore to Nagasaki (Japan) via Takao (Taiwan) and Manila (Philippines) departed 3/6/44 arrived finally on 21/6/44 with 450 POWs. The Weihsien Compound (Shandong) (Civilian only), Lunghua Civilian Assembly Centre (Shanghai). By taking too aggressive a stand they would have run a great personal risk and would probably at the same time have jeopardized what scant opportunities for relief work they had. The captain of the ship, Shin Kajiyama, was acquitted, "as he had no chance to prevent any atrocities". Used as a POW & Internment camp between April 1942 and June 1944. 4 Camp, Taiwan, Formosa, JC /59   Taihoku West, Mountain Camp, Taiwan, Formosa, JC /60   Taihoku & Indin, No 6 Camp, Jungle Camp, Taiwan, Formosa, JC /24   Argyle Street, Shamshuipo, "N" Camp, "S" Camp, Hong Kong, JC /88   Numbers 1, 2, 3, 5 Camps, Hiroshima, also Fukuoka 7 &12, Zentsuji 2, Japan, JC /176 Ube, Ube Camp Mines, Higarshimizome,Hakon Shu 2 Camp, Japan, JC /181 Mororan, Muroran, Musoyan, Mussian, Hakodate Group, Japan, JC /182 Nisi Asibetsu Camp, Hakodate Group, Japan, JC /183 Akahera Camp, Hakodate Group, Japan, JC /189 Yokohama, Mitsubishi, Tokyo Group, Japan, JC /201 Seida P.W. Documents related to the hilly jungle terrain – too difficult to even.... Jaokunnen Rd, Ban Nua, Kanchanaburi 71000 Thailand, wo356 index numbers for specific camps within 3. Up with a bridge built across it a cup of miso soup, and some did not: List... 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