Finally the Caledonia Highlands and St. Croix Highlands extend along the Bay of Fundy coast reaching elevations of more than 400 m (1,312 ft). Your Eyes Will Deceive You at Magnetic Hill! This post has already been read 4273 times! It’s also filled with friendly locals, delicious seafood, and the highest tides in the world. As part of Canada, New Brunswick has experienced immigration on a smaller scale from all over the world, and today boasts a varied and increasingly multicultural population. The Atlantic province of Canada known as New Brunswick is a place of dramatic scenery, amazing outdoor recreation, and plenty of cultural events to keep any traveler entertained. I believe that the NB senate was abolished in 1902. History of Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada Journey back in time to Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada Visit Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada. The New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company, a means of transferring land held by the Crown to individual owners, was chartered in New Brunswick in 1831. Community. The display cases were organized in a generalized geographic order to show changes through time , though many of the images overlap between areas (especially the air photos and maps). The new colony was almost called New Ireland after a failed attempt to establish a colony of that name in Maine during the war. Nevertheless, unemployment remained high throughout the province, and the Great Depression brought another setback. Discover your potential at UNB. The Historical Atlas, Plate 11 illustrates “Timber Production and Trade to 1850”, and plate 12, “Agriculture in Atlantic Canada, 1851”, both with special reference to New Brunswick, the data being derived from the 1851 census. A Video on the History of New Brunswick and how it got this far. The province later gained control over its crown lands in 1837. Thanks to those who have followed and supported us. The provincial flag features a ship superimposed on a yellow background with a yellow lion passant guardant on red pennon above it. Visit sandstone sea caves carved out by the powerful waves. The urban centres and smaller communities are welcoming to newcomers and offer safe, peaceful environments to build new lives. Governor Charles Lawrence of Nova Scotia used the discovery of Acadians helping in the defence of the fort to order the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia. When Samuel de Champlain and other European explorers began to explore the area that would become New Brunswick in the early 1600's, they were met by the native Maliseet and Mi'kmaq tribes who had inhabited the area and lived along the rivers and coasts. Deciduous stands, especially along the river valleys, consist of sugar and red maple, trembling aspen, and yellow and white birch. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, some of the deported Acadians from Nova Scotia found their way back to “Acadie,” where they settled mostly along the eastern and northern shores of the new colony of New Brunswick. In the Canada 2016 Census, Statistics Canada estimated the provincial population to have been 747,101, down very slightly from 751,171 in 2011, on an area of almost 73,000 km2. February is Black History Month. The Micmac & Malecite peoples were followed by the Acadians, New England Planters, the Loyalists, the Irish and the Scots. Alumni, Schools, & Yearbooks. The New Brunswick Genealogical Society facilitates genealogical research. 1. Thirteen-year-old William Cumming tells the story of the voyage across the Atlantic and up the St. John River to Upper Kintore here. Grammar schools at the parish level followed in 1805 and again in 1816. In 1784, Britain split the colony of Nova Scotia into three separate colonies: New Brunswick, Cape Breton Island, and present-day peninsular Nova Scotia, in addition to the adjacent colonies of St. John’s Island (renamed Prince Edward Island in 1798) and Newfoundland. Aboriginal Settlement The first settlers of New Brunswick were the Mi’kmaq, whose communities spread from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island to the south coast of the Gaspé Peninsula, the Maliseet along the Saint John River valley and Passamaquoddy Bay along the St Croix River. Fort Anne (Fredericton) fell during the 1759 campaign, and following this, the legal de jure status of Utretcht was settled and confirmed de facto by the Treaty of Paris 1763. New Brunswick Provincial Nominee Program. The University of New Brunswick was founded at Fredericton at the same time (1785), making it the oldest English-language university in Canada and the first public university in North America. In fact, Governor Douglas saw a silver lining in the great 1825 Miramichi Fire; he is recorded to have declared that the fire had positive aspects, in that it cleared the forest so that residents might dedicate themselves to farming, instead of relying on the sale of timber in order to purchase imported foodstuffs. U.S., Records of Aliens Pre-Examined in Canada, 1904-1954: 1,298,019: New Brunswick, Canada, Passenger Lists: 1834: 2,487: The Old United Empire Loyalists List: 336: Irish Emigration to New England through the Port of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada, 1841 to 1849: 289: View other Immigration & Emigration collections related to New Brunswick (20) The parishes of Westfield, Sussex, Springfield and Kingston were created in 1786. This hilly landmass is cut in every direction by an extensive river system. Following confederation, the fears of the anti-confederates were proven correct as new national policies and trade barriers were soon adopted by the central government, thus disrupting the historic trading relationship between the Maritime Provinces and New England. About. Our retirement project is exploring New Brunswick’s history and beauty and sharing it  through this site and on social media. Financed by shares sold in England, this company purchased large areas of Canadian land at low prices, promising to develop roads, mills and towns. This is a history of Forest Protection Limited’s association with some 88 TBM Avenger aircraft used in the spruce budworm aerial spray program, primarily in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. 758 likes. Resource-based industries such as logging and farming were also important components of the New Brunswick economy during this time and railways were constructed throughout the province to serve them and link the rural communities. We are non-profit and self-fund our travels with donations from supporting businesses and campgrounds. Discover its history. New Brunswick – New Brunswick Late Registration of Births, 1810-1899, index & images 4. Bouctouche’s Le Pays de la Sagouine and the Kings Landing Historical Settlement in Prince William are, respectively, New Brunswick’s two most fascinating living museums to Acadian and Loyalist cultures. Additionally, a number of lake-size arms branch off the lower St. John on its eastern side, the largest of which is Grand Lake, about 60 miles (100 km) inland. Learn about the people who lived there through stories, old newspaper articles, pictures, postcards and genealogy. A large influx of settlers arrived in New Brunswick after 1845 from Ireland as a result of the Potato Famine; many of these people settled in Saint John or Chatham. Hannay deals with a lengthy list of topics. The smaller Passamaquoddy tribe occupied lands in the southwest of the province. It was created as a result of the partitioning of the British colony of Nova Scotia in 1784 and was originally named New Ireland with the capital to be in Saint John. Agricultural lands are found mostly in the upper Saint John River valley, with lesser amounts of farmland in the southeast of the province, especially in the Kennebecasis and Petitcodiac river valleys. According to its Official Languages Act as confirmed in the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick has two official languages, English and French, and New Brunswickers have the right to receive provincial government services in the official language of their choice. In addition to employment opportunities across a variety of sectors or vibrant entrepreneurial landscape; people are choosing New Brunswick to enjoy a more relaxed, healthy, and affordable lifestyle. LOCAL HISTORY. The majority of soils are acidic and low in nutrients. Influential Loyalists such as Harvard-educated Edward Winslow saw themselves as the natural leaders of their community and that they should be recognized for their rank and that their loyalty deserved special compensation. Joined to Nova Scotia by the narrow Chignecto Isthmus and separated from Prince Edward Island by the Northumberland Strait. SIGNIFICANT DATES IN HISTORY 1534 - Jacques Cartier explores the coast of New Brunswick, sailing into and naming the Bay of Chaleur. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The 1969 Official Languages Act made French an official language. Forests cover the majority of the province, and coniferous trees commonly found in northern temperate climates—such as balsam fir, red and black spruce, pine, and hemlock—constitute the principal growth. Web. Originally written in 1934, Dr. W. C. Milner, a historian and former Archivist, compiled a detailed History of Sackville, New Brunswick including much biographical genealogical information about individuals and families who made Sackville their home. One of the purposes of this project is to explore that history and document as much of it as we can. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/place/New-Brunswick-province, The Canadian Encyclopedia - New Brunswick, Canada, Official Tourism Site of New Brunswick, Canada, New Brunswick - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), New Brunswick - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). New Brunswick is one of 3 provinces collectively known as the "Maritimes." Spring flooding is common in many of the rivers. Photos. Skip the traffic and enjoy being minutes away from rivers, lakes and oceans – New Brunswick is waiting for you. Many politicians who supported confederation, such as Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley (New Brunswick’s best-known Father of Confederation), found themselves without a seat after the next election; nevertheless, backers of the wider confederation eventually prevailed. New Brunswick changed from more than two-thirds rural before 1941 to predominantly urban by 1971. This interest in an expanded union arose from the Province of Canada (formerly Upper and Lower Canada, later Ontario and Quebec), and a request was made by the Canadian political leaders to the organizers of the Maritime conference to have the meeting agenda altered. New Brunswick is the largest of Canada’s three Maritime provinces. The then-colony was named in 1784 to honour the reigning British monarch, George III, who was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg (“Hanover”) in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Temperatures at Fredericton range from an extreme low of −35 °F (−37 °C) to an extreme high of 99 °F (37 °C). 23 November 2018: We have just added Aiton Families in New Brunswick: The Scottish Immigrant Hugh Aiton (1784-1862) and His Descendants and Relatives in Canada to the website. The majority of the population is English-speaking of Anglo and Celtic heritage, but there is also a large Francophone minority (33%), chiefly of Acadian origin. The glacial history of New Brunswick is poorly understood. Two influential families, the Irvings and the McCains, emerged from the Depression to begin to modernise and vertically integrate the provincial economy—especially in the vital forestry, food processing, and energy sectors. New Brunswick’s Acadians remain Canada’s largest and strongest French speaking community outside of Québec. New Denmark, New Brunswick, the Oldest Danish Community in Canada Canadian Culture , New Brunswick , Settler History / May 27, 2016 by Alan McNairn / 41 Comments Canada is a country with a rich history of waves of immigrants from European countries. The high tides of the Bay of Fundy reverse the rapids at the river’s mouth at the city of Saint John and raise the level of the lower river for up to 95 miles (150 km) inland. While New Brunswick has contributed significantly to the national life of Canada, it is one of the smaller provinces and has always occupied a lesser role in the national economy. The whole maritime region (and parts of Maine) was at that time claimed by France and was designated as the colony of Acadia. Irish Emigration to New England Through the Port of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada, 1841 to 1849 by Daniel F. Johnson and Cg Johnson | Jun 1, 2009 1.0 out of 5 stars 1 The remainder of Acadia (including the New Brunswick region) was only lightly populated and the two European powers contended over this ill-defined territory. Search Canada New Brunswick New Brunswick . Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). New Brunswick has a roughly rectangular shape, about 210 miles (340 km) from north to south and 185 miles (300 km) from east to west. Founded about 1760 by shipwrecked French seamen, it is one of the province’s Author of. Allaby, G.M. New Brunswick – New Brunswick, Provincial Returns of Births and Late Registr… As a result of the loss of the American colonies 30,000 to 35,000 people, who remained loyal to Britain, carne to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Perhaps unknown to many is the fact that among the first establishments in Acadia, the French had also settled where we know today as New Brunswick. National Historic Sites of New Brunswick. New Brunswick Provincial Deaths, 1815-1938 Index and images. Omissions? Although smaller, the Bouctouche River, Richibucto River and Kouchibouguac River are also important. Although the Maritime leaders were swayed by the arguments of the Canadians, many ordinary residents of the Maritimes wanted no part of this larger confederation for fear that their interests and concerns would be ignored in a wider national union. See also: History of New Brunswick and List of historic places in Albert County, New Brunswick Low tide at Alma The settlement, known as Salmon River Settlement, began in earnest as the lumbering trade took root with the exchange of land-grant title, and construction of a … Canada – Canada Births and Baptisms, 1661-1959, index 2. The total land and water area of the province is 72,908 km2 (28,150 sq mi), over 80 percent of which is forested. New Brunswick, Canadian province located on the eastern seaboard of the North American continent. New Brunswick – New Brunswick Births and Baptisms, 1819-1899, index 3. Claude de Latour, the father of Charles, was well installed at the mouth of the St. John River before de Razilly and d’Aulnay arrived at Port-Royal in 1632. Rolls ~ History ~ Treaties ~ Census ~ Books. A major French fortification, the Fortress of Louisbourg, was also built on Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island) after Queen Anne’s War, but the function of this fort was mostly to defend the approaches to the colony of Canada, not the lost province of Acadia. Capture Canada’s rugged coastline on camera on this 5-hour Fundy Coast to Fundy Shore photography tour. Following the war, significant population growth finally came to the area, when 14,000 Loyalists, having lost the war, came from the newly created United States, arriving on the Saint John River in 1783. Kings County, located in central New Brunswick, was one of the original counties set up in 1785. Normal annual rainfall is slightly above 30 inches (800 mm), and snowfall averages about 115 inches (2,900 mm); annual precipitation (which factors in snowmelt) amounts to about 43 inches (1,100 mm). The Charlottetown Conference of 1864, which ultimately led to the confederation movement, originally had been intended to discuss only a Maritime Union, but concerns over the American Civil War as well as Fenian activity along the border led to an interest in expanding … New Brunswick, Canada History and Genealogy. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The French-speaking minority, which has grown to about one-third of the population, consists of the descendants of 17th-century Acadian settlers augmented by French Canadians from Quebec, and it is concentrated in the northern and eastern counties. I am interested in finding out about Ambrose Richard, my grandfather and one of the last senators of N.B. F. Fellows' Researching Your Ancestors in New Brunswick pages 128–144 and Genealogist's Handbook for Atlantic Canada Research edited by Terrence M. Punch, pages 7–12. The goal of the Portal is to create a comprehensive online database of New Brunswick’s Scottish settlers. It is concentrated in the southern and western parts of the province. The railway industry, meanwhile, provided for growth and prosperity in the Moncton region. Woodstock is a town in Carleton County, New Brunswick, Canada on the Saint John River, 103 km upriver from Fredericton at the mouth of the Meduxnekeag River.It is near the Canada–United States border and Houlton, Maine and the intersection of Interstate 95 and the Trans-Canada Highway making it a transportation hub. It is located under Quebec's Gaspé Peninsula and beside the State of Maine. The bulk of the Acadian population thus found themselves residing in the new British colony of Nova Scotia. Does anyone have any information about him? The northeast, especially around Bathurst, produces zinc, copper, lead, silver, and peat moss. Your email address will not be published. Almost all the cultivable soils have moderate to severe limitations that restrict the range of crops or require special conservation practices. Immigrate After Studying in New Brunswick. Before you on the shore you find a lumber camp, a place to sleep, food and occasional respite from a hard life in the woods. The Charlottetown Conference of 1864, which ultimately led to the confederation movement, originally had been intended to discuss only a Maritime Union, but concerns over the American Civil War as well as Fenian activity along the border led to an interest in expanding the scope of the proposed union. Manufacturing gained strength with the construction of textile mills such as the St. Croix Cotton Mill; and in the crucial forestry sector, the sawmills that had dotted inland sections of the province gave way to larger pulp and paper mills. The name was soon replaced with New Brunswick by King George II. Its capital is Fredericton. New Brunswick - History and Culture. timeline New Brunswick. Here you'll find record collections, history, and genealogy resources to help you trace your New Brunswick ancestors. One of the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 was the surrender of Acadia (or Nova Scotia as it was called by the British) to Queen Anne. He embarked on the ambitious Equal Opportunity Plan, in which education, rural road maintenance, and health care fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial government that insisted on equal coverage throughout the province. The three major urban centres are all in the southern third of the province. When hearing constitutional cases, Courts must follow both *New Brunswick, Death Certificates, 1920-1934 Images. It is Canada’s only officially bilingual province, French and English having equal status. Descendants of the province’s first inhabitants, the Indians (First Nations), remain in small numbers on federally administered reserves (reservations) along the east coast or in the St. John valley, or they have integrated into neighbouring communities. 05 Oct. 2016. . The Marco Polo, a clipper ship holding the round-trip speed record between Liverpool and Australia, was launched from Saint John in 1851. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Fredericton, Saint John, and Moncton all sit on rivers that have played a significant role in their economic history. Pop. In both these cases, many of the new settlers took up land that had originally belonged to displaced Acadians before the deportation. All Rights Reserved. The largest tribe was the Mi’kmaq, and they occupied the eastern and coastal areas of the province. 1604 - The French attempt their first … The forests support substantial herds of white-tailed deer, moose, and small animals such as porcupines and raccoons. The New Brunswick Provincial Nominee Program (NBPNP) Express Entry Labour Market Stream, a direct route to Canadian permanent residence, stipulates that applicants must have at least 12 months full-time (or an equal amount in part-time) paid skilled work experience in New Brunswick in the three years … Government services were often not available in French, and the infrastructure in predominantly Francophone areas was noticeably less developed than in the rest of the province; this changed with the election of Premier Louis Robichaud in 1960. New Brunswick, Death Certificates, 1935-1938 Images. Even though the bulk of the Loyalist population was located in Parrtown (Saint John), the decision was made by the colonial authorities to place the new colonial capital at St. Anne’s Point (Fredericton), about 150 km up the Saint John River as it was felt that by placing the capital inland, it would be less vulnerable to American attack. The New Brunswick Museum (and its predecessor) in Saint John has been an exhibitor of natural and human history for over 150 years. These censuses are available at the National Archives of Canada, the Family History Library, and local Family History Centers. Although it is possible that Vikings may have reached as far south as New Brunswick, the first known European exploration of New Brunswick was that of French explorer Jacques Cartier in 1534, who discovered and named the Bay of Chaleur. Civil liberties group prepared to sue New Brunswick over access to abortion Mendelsohn Aviv said that would pave the way for the province having to fund the service in any clinic that offers it. Some of the Acadians in the Petitcodiac and Memramcook region escaped, and under the leadership of Joseph Broussard continued to conduct guerrilla action against the British forces for a couple of years. The province entered Confederation with a Legislative Council of 40 members holding their seats for life, a Legislative Assembly of 40 members and an Executive Council of nine members. © 2021 MyNewBrunswick.ca. Over the next 150 years, a number of other French settlements and seigneuries were founded in the area occupied by present-day New Brunswick, including along the Saint John River, the upper Bay of Fundy region, in the Tantramar Marshes at Beaubassin, and finally at St. Pierre (site of present-day Bathurst). First published in 1825. Winters are snowy and cold, and summers are mild and pleasant. Roman Catholics outnumber Protestants, who are mostly of the Baptist, United Church of Canada, Anglican, Pentecostal, and Presbyterian denominations. The fall, with alternating cold nights and sunny warm days, is particularly spectacular, as the blazing colours of deciduous foliage contrast with the solid dark greens of conifers. Plains and flatlands are limited to sea-level marshlands in the southeast, river valley floodplains, and low-lying lands adjacent to the beaches of the east coast. Under its powers of changing the provincial constitution the Legislative Council was abolished by an act passed on April 16, 1891. The enslavement of black people has a hidden history in New Brunswick. William F. Ganong, A monograph of the place-nomenclature of the Province of New Brunswick (Ottawa, Ontario: J. Durie, 1896). New BrunswickEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Chartered by King George III, the province was named for the royal house of Brunswick, and its capital, Fredericton, was named for King George III’s son Frederick. Discover its history. There are no true mountains, although ranges of rugged and sometimes steep hills run east-west a few miles north of the Fundy coast and in the north-central part of the province, where the highest elevation is Mount Carleton at 2,680 feet (817 metres). Hannay deals with a lengthy list of topics. Oceanic effects therefore tend to define their climate, economy, and culture. The southeast corner of the province is connected to the Nova Scotia peninsula by the narrow Isthmus of Chignecto. Saint John Harbour was first entered probably in 1524 by Gomez (A Spaniard) and named Rio De La Buelta. The 104th Regiment of Foot (the New Brunswick Regiment) 1803-1817 (Fredericton: Brunswick Press, 1962). However they were not appreciated by the pre-loyalist population in Nova Scotia. Both Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island are either surrounded by, or are almost completely surrounded by water. Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada 2014. History of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Journey back in time to Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Visit Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Some of the interesting facts you'll learn about your surname: Meaning and History … The colony of New Brunswick was created in summer 1784; Sir Thomas Carleton was appointed as Lieutenant-Governor on 3 August 1784, and in 1785 a new legislative assembly was established with the first elections. History of New Brunswick is the definitive book on the early history and settlement of the Canadian province of New Brunswick up to 1909. Are you ready to not believe your eyes? Education and health care were poorly funded, and in the 1940s and 1950s the rates of illiteracy and infant mortality were among the highest in Canada. 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